The Various Ethical Theories in the Criminal Justice Field
The criminal justice field is filled with a vast number of ethical theories. These theories help to explain the cause of crime and how it can be prevented. They also provide a framework for understanding the actions of police officers and other law enforcement officials. The following is a list of some of the most prominent ethical theories in the criminal justice field:
2. Situational Crime Prevention
a. Routine Activity Theory
According to routine activity theory, crime is a function of the opportunity and motivation that exists for potential offenders. This theory suggests that criminals are more likely to engage in criminal activity if they have easy access to targets and if they believe that they can get away with the crime. This theory has been used to explain why certain types of crimes are more common in certain areas than others. For example, crimes such as burglary and car theft are more common in urban areas because there are more opportunities for potential offenders to commit these crimes.
b. Broken Windows Theory
The broken windows theory suggests that crime is more likely to occur in areas where there is evidence of disorder and neglect. This theory suggests that criminals are more likely to commit crimes in areas where there are signs of social disorder, such as graffiti or abandoned buildings. This theory has been used to explain why some areas are more prone to crime than others.
3. Agency Problem
The agency problem is a type of problem that can arise when there is a conflict of interest between two parties who are working together. This type of problem can occur when one party (the agent) is working on behalf of another party (the principal). The principal-agent problem can lead to situations where the agent is not acting in the best interests of the principal, which can result in adverse consequences for the principal.
4. Social Control Theory
Social control theory suggests that people conform to the rules and norms of society because they believe that it is in their best interests to do so. This theory suggests that people conform to societal norms because they believe that breaking the law will lead to negative consequences, such as imprisonment or social ostracism. Social control theory has been used to explain why people comply with the law even when there is no immediate threat of punishment.
Sanism is a type of discrimination that occurs when people with mental illness are treated unfairly because of their mental illness. This type of discrimination can result in people with mental illness being denied their civil rights, such as the right to vote or the right to own property. Sanism can also lead to people with mental illness being institutionalized against their will or being subjected to involuntary commitment laws.
Cullen, F. T., & Agnew, R. (Eds.). (1997). Situational crime prevention: Theoretical foundations. CRC Press.