The Terms “Intellectual” and “Labor” in Medieval Society: A Re-Evaluation
Jacques Le Goff is a French historian who specializes in the social and cultural history of the Middle Ages. He is best known for his re-evaluation of the concept of the “intellectual” in medieval society. In this essay, I will discuss Le Goff’s argument that the terms “intellectual” and “labor” should be seen as two sides of the same coin. I will also critically evaluate Le Goff’s use of the term “intellectual” and its implications for medieval studies today.
2. The Terms “Intellectual” and “Labor”
Le Goff argues that the terms “intellectual” and “labor” should be seen as two sides of the same coin. On the one hand, the term “intellectual” refers to those who engage in mental labor, such as philosophers, theologians, and scholars. On the other hand, the term “labor” refers to those who engage in manual labor, such as peasants and artisans. Le Goff believes that both groups were essential to the development of medieval society.
3. The School of the Intellectuals
Le Goff argues that the school was the first institution of learning for intellectuals in medieval society. He states that schools were created in order to train priests and monks, who were responsible for spreading Christianity throughout Europe. However, schools were also open to laypeople, who were interested in learning about religion and philosophy. Le Goff believes that schools played a key role in the development of heresy during the Middle Ages. Heresy was often associated with intellectual inquiry, which was seen as a threat to religious orthodoxy.
4. The University of the Intellectuals
Le Goff argues that universities were created in order totrain professional intellectuals, who could serve as advisers to kings and nobles. He states that universities were modeled after monastic schools, and they adopted many of their features, such as curriculum and rules of conduct. However, universities were also unique in their embrace of Aristotelian philosophy, which was seen as a potential tool for political control. Le Goff believes that universities played a key role in the development of nation-states during the Middle Ages.
5. The Profession of the Intellectuals
Le Goff argues that intellectuals became a professional class during the Late Middle Ages. He states that intellectuals were employed by kings and nobles in order to advise them on political and military matters. Intellectuals were also hired by churches and universities in order to teach or write texts on theology or philosophy. Finally, intellectuals were employed by merchants in order to keep track of their business dealings. Le Goff believes that the professionalization of intellectuals led to increased social mobility during the Late Middle Ages.
6. The Usurer of the Intellectuals
Le Goff argues that usury was an important source of income for many intellectuals during the Late Middle Ages. He states that usury was a way for intellectuals to invest their money without having to engage in manual labor. Usury was also a way for intellectuals to loan money to those who needed it, without having to charge interest rates. Le Goff believes that usury helped to finance many important projects during the Late Middle Ages, including cathedrals and universities.
7.Conclusion In conclusion, Jacques LeGoff 's study