The Relationship Between ADHD and LLD: How It Can Impact Language and Literacy Skills
Oscar is a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed with ADHD and a Language Learning Disability (LLD). He attends a regular kindergarten class, but his mother is concerned about his progress in school. In this essay, we will discuss the possible causes of Oscar’s LLD and its impact on his language and literacy skills.
2. LLD and Its Relationship to ADHD
ADHD is a common condition that can affect a person’s ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulsive behaviours. It is estimated that up to 5% of children have ADHD. Many children with ADHD also have other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, or depression.
It is not yet known exactly what causes ADHD, but it is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Children with ADHD often have difficulty regulating their emotions and may be more prone to impulsive and risky behaviours.
Research has shown that there is a strong relationship between ADHD and LLD. One study found that 60% of children with ADHD also had an LLD. It is not yet clear exactly how these two conditions are related, but it is thought that they both share some common underlying causes, such as problems with the brain’s executive functioning skills.
Executive functioning skills are important for planning, organizing, and self-monitoring behaviour. Children with ADHD often have difficulty with these skills, which can lead to problems with paying attention, controlling impulsivity, and completing tasks. It is thought that these difficulties may also contribute to difficulties in acquiring language skills.
3. The Impact of LLD on Language Skills
LLD refers to language impairment which potentially affects all aspects of language, both spoken and written. Oscar’s mother reports that he has difficulty following directions and answering questions at school. He has trouble understanding what other people are saying to him and often uses made-up words when he speaks. His speech is sometimes hard to understand due to errors in his pronunciation and grammar.
Oscar’s difficulties with language skills are likely due to problems with phonology, the sound structure of language. Children with phonological problems often have difficulty producing the correct sounds when they speak. They may also have problems with letter-sound knowledge, which can impact their ability to read correctly later on.
4. The Impact of LLD on Literacy Skills
LLD can also impact a child’s ability to develop literacy skills such as reading and writing. Oscar’s mother reports that he has difficulty sounding out words when he reads and often makes errors in his spelling when he writes. He has trouble knowing which letters go together to form words and often forgets how to write common words correctly.
Oscar’s difficulties with literacy skills are likely due to problems with phonemic awareness, the ability to hear and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Children with phonemic awareness difficulties often have trouble knowing which letters represent which sounds (i), segmenting spoken words into individual sounds (ii), or blending sounds together to form spoken words (iii). These difficulties can make it hard for children to learn how to read or spell new words correctly.
Oscar’s LLD is likely due to problems with phonology, the sound structure of