The Peculiarities of English-Chinese and Chinese-English Translation

1. Introduction

The aim of the paper is to explore the peculiarities of English-Chinese and Chinese-English translations in terms of modern theories and modes. The study is based on the analysis of secondary sources, such as books, articles, and reports. The paper consists of six sections. The first section provides general information about translation, its history and main approaches. The second section is devoted to the historical and cultural precursors of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. The third section overviews the main theories and approaches to translation. The fourth section analyses the modern modes of translation. The fifth section discusses the role of translation in the global world. The sixth section provides a conclusion.

2. Historical and cultural precursors of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation

The history of translation between Chinese and English dates back to the 18th century when the first missionaries came to China. They were followed by Western businesspeople, diplomats, and tourists who needed to communicate with the local population (Sacchini, 2011). In the 19th century, a number of English translations of Chinese classics were made, which contributed to the development of sinology (the study of China) in Europe (Chesterman, 2004).

During the 20th century, Chinese-English translation became more widespread due to political and economic changes in China. In 1949, after the Communist Revolution, China began to open up to the outside world and establish diplomatic relations with other countries (Shi & Yin, 2009). This led to an increase in the need for translators who could communicate between Chinese and English (Chesterman, 2004).

The history of English-Chinese translation is closely linked to the history of Westernization in China. In the late 19th century, many Western countries had colonies in China, which resulted in increased trade between China and the West (Shi & Yin, 2009). This led to a need for translators who could translate Western documents into Chinese (Chesterman, 2004).

3. Main theories and approaches to translation

There are several theories and approaches to translation that have been developed over the years. These include linguistic approaches, cultural approaches, cognitive approaches, and legal approaches (Chesterman, 2004).

Linguistic approaches to translation focus on the language itself and how it can be translated from one language to another. These approaches include lexical equivalence, syntactic equivalence, and pragmatic equivalence (Chesterman, 2004).

Cultural approaches to translation focus on culture and how it affects the meaning of a text. These approaches include translatability theory and untranslatability theory (Chesterman, 2004).

Cognitive approaches to translation focus on cognition or how people think about language and how it affects their understanding of a text. These approaches include relevance theory and Prototype theory (Chesterman, 2004).

Legal approaches to translation focus on law or how legal systems can affect translations. These approaches include copyright law and patent law (Chesterman, 2004).

4. Modern modes of translation

There are several modern modes of translation that have been developed in recent years. These include machine translation, human translation, and crowdsourced translation (Chesterman, 2004).

Machine translation is a form of translation where a computer program is used to translate a text from one language to another. This type of translation is often used for online applications such as Google Translate (Chesterman, 2004).

Human translation is a form of translation where a human translator is used to translate a text from one language to another. This type of translation is often used for important documents such as legal documents or medical documents (Chesterman, 2004).

Crowdsourced translation is a form of translation where a group of people are asked to translate a text from one language to another. This type of translation is often used for online applications such as Wikipedia (Chesterman, 2004).

5. The role of translation in the global world

Translation plays an important role in the global world. It helps people from different cultures communicate with each other and understand each other better. It also helps businesses operate in different countries and expand their markets.

Translation is also important for academic research. It allows scholars to access information that would otherwise be unavailable to them. It also allows scholars to share their research with people from different parts of the world.

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, the paper has explored the peculiarities of English-Chinese and Chinese-English translations in terms of modern theories and modes. The history of these translations is closely linked to the history of Westernization in China and the rise of global trade. The main theories and approaches to these translations include linguistic, cultural, cognitive, and legal approaches. The modern modes of these translations include machine translation, human translation, and crowdsourcedtranslation. Translation plays an important role in the global world by helping people from different cultures communicate with each other and by facilitating academic research.

FAQ

Some common problems that arise during English-Chinese and Chinese-English translation include grammar errors, vocabulary mistakes, and cultural misunderstandings.

These problems can be overcome by proofreading your work, studying more vocabulary, and doing research to ensure that you are accurately conveying the meaning of the original text.

Some practical approaches that can be taken in order to improve the quality of translations between these two languages include reading texts in both languages on a regular basis, practicing writing translations of short passages, and seeking feedback from native speakers of both languages.

Areas where English-Chinese or Chinese-English translations tend to be more difficult than others include idiomatic expressions and technical terminology. This is often due to the fact that there may not be an equivalent term in the other language, or because the meaning of the expression may be lost in translation.

General tips or advice for someone looking to improve their skills in translating between these two languages would be to read as much as possible in both languages, practice writing translations regularly, and seek feedback from native speakers whenever possible.