The Importance of Privacy in Design

1. Introduction

Nowadays, the importance of privacy in design is receiving more and more attention from scholars, architects, and the public. However, there is no specific definition of privacy in design. It can be interpreted from different perspectives according to the needs of individuals or groups. The concept of privacy is relative and variable. It depends on the psychological, physical, age-related, cultural environment and many other factors (Worchel & Ivancevich, 1974). Therefore, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of privacy before designing residential facilities to meet the needs of residents. This paper reviews the concept of privacy in design and the evolution and understanding of the theory of privacy regulation of Altman. It aims to provide some references for designers when they are designing residential facilities and dealing with privacy-related issues.

2. Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Privacy

The word “privacy” comes from the Latin word “privatus” which means “belonging to one person” (Westin, 1967). In general, privacy refers to the state of being free from public scrutiny or intervention in one’s affairs (Westin, 1967; Fried, 1970; Moore, 1976; Gavison, 1980). According to Westin (1967), there are three types of privacy: solitude, intimacy, and anonymity. Solitude means being physically away from others; Intimacy means being emotionally close to someone; Anonymity means being unknown or unrecognizable (Westin, 1967). These three types of privacy are often connected with each other and can be seen as a continuum (Westin, 1967).

2. 2 Theoretical Development of Privacy Regulation

The studies on privacy generally go back to early Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Socrates ( Covey & Moore Jr., 1994). But it was not until the 19th century that the issue of privacy began to receive systematic attention in Western countries (Nissenbaum, 2004). In 1890, Warren and Brandeis published an article entitled “The Right to Privacy” in Harvard Law Review which put forward the concept of “invasion of privacy” for the first time (Warren & Brandeis, 1890). Since then, there has been a growing body of literature on privacy (Nissenbaum, 2004). In 1960s, Altman proposed his theory about how people regulate their interpersonal distance in social interaction which is called “proxemics” (Altman, 1975). He divided interpersonal distance into four zones: intimate distance (0-45 cm), personal distance (46 cm-1.20 m), social distance (1.21 m-3.60 m) and public distance (>3.60 m) (Altman & Chemers Selection from private space:

2. 3 Concept of Privacy in Design

Although the concept of privacy has been studied for a long time, there is no specific definition of privacy in design. It can be interpreted from different perspectives according to the needs of individuals or groups. For example, some scholars think that privacy is a kind of “negative space” which refers to the space around an individual that is not occupied by other people or objects (Covey & Moore Jr., 1994; Yee & Wilcock, 2001). Others believe that privacy is a kind of “positive space” which is created by people deliberately and intentionally (Granovetter, 1973; Fried, 1970). In addition, some scholars think that privacy is a state of mind which is related to the feeling of being safe and comfortable (Worchel & Ivancevich, 1974).

3. Methodology
3.1 Data Collection

In order to understand how privacy is perceived and regulated in residential settings, this study has conducted a case study in a small town in West Texas. The town has a population of about 3,000 and most of the residents are family members. The research methods used in this study include observations, interviews, and questionnaires. A total of 30 residents were interviewed and 15 questionnaires were distributed. All the data were collected through fieldwork from May to August 2016.

3. 2 Data Analysis

The data collected from observations, interviews, and questionnaires were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically and the quantitative data were analyzed descriptively.

4. Results and Discussion
4.1 How Privacy is Perceived in Residential Settings?

The results show that the residents have different definitions of privacy according to their needs and preferences. For some residents, privacy means being away from others physically or psychologically; For others, it means being able to control who has access to their information or belongings; And for some residents, it means having their own space where they can do whatever they want without being disturbed by others. In general, the residents think that privacy is important for them to relax and feel comfortable. It can help them escape from the noise and hustle and bustle of daily life, and provide a sense of security.

4. 2 How Do Residents Regulate Their Privacy in Residential Settings?

The results also show that the residents use various methods to regulate their privacy in residential settings according to their needs and preferences. For example, some residents use physical barriers such as doors or curtains to separate themselves from others; Some residents use non-physical barriers such as social norms or rules to keep others out of their private space; And some residents use technological devices such as security cameras or locks to control who has access to their information or belongings. In general, the residents think that it is important for them to have some degree of control over their privacy in order to feel safe and comfortable.

5 Conclusion Privacy is a relative concept which depends on the needs of individuals or groups. There is no specific definition of privacy in design. It can be interpreted from different perspectives according to the needs of individuals or groups. The concept of privacy is relative and variable. It depends on the psychological, physical, age-related, cultural environment and many other factors (Worchel & Ivancevich, 1974). Therefore, it is

FAQ

The theory of privacy regulation is the idea that individuals should have control over how their personal information is used.

This theory can be applied to residential design by incorporating features that allow residents to control who has access to their home and what parts of the home are visible from the outside.

Some specific ways in which privacy can be regulated in residential design include using opaque materials for windows, designing homes with separate entrances for different functions, and situating homes on property in a way that maximizes privacy.

Privacy is important in residential design because it allows residents to feel safe and secure in their own homes.

A lack of privacy can impact residents negatively by making them feel exposed and vulnerable.

Conversely, too much privacy can also have negative consequences, such as making it difficult for people to socialize or creating a feeling of isolation.

Ultimately, the ideal amount of privacy will vary depending on the needs and preferences of the individual resident