The Impact of Industrialization on Art: The Emergence of Impressionism

1. Introduction

The industrialization of the 19th century lead to many changes in the life of people and, as a result, in the art. One of the most important changes was the appearance of a new social class – the middle class. This class had spare time and money to spend it on different activities, including art.

Different artists started to look for something new, something that would express the peculiarities of this new way of life. They were searching for a new style, which would be different from the traditional one. And they found it – impressionism.

Impressionism is an art movement that began in France in the late nineteenth century. Its main aim was to capture light and its changing qualities, as well as apparent motion. The artists wanted to show that their impressions about the world were more important than literal depictions.

The representatives of this art movement are Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Paul Cezanne. They are considered to be the most important and influential painters of impressionism. In their works, they depicted leisure time, which became possible due to the industrialization.

2. The paintings by Monet

Claude Monet is a French painter who is considered to be one of the founders of impressionism. He was born in 1840 in Paris and died in 1926 in Giverny. During his lifetime, he created about two thousand paintings.

Monet’s work was characterized by its unusual lightness and brightness. He managed to capture the changing quality of light and its effects on objects and people. In his paintings, you can see the play of sunlight and shadows, reflections on water surfaces, etc. All these effects create an illusion of movement and make the viewer feel like he is a part of the painting.

2. 1. “Le Déjeuner des canotiers”

“Le Déjeuner des canotiers” is one of Monet’s most famous paintings. It was created in 1881 and depicts a scene from everyday life – people having lunch by the river Seine near La Grenouillère (a popular recreation spot at that time).

In this painting, Monet used different colors to create an effect of sunlight reflecting on water surfaces. The overall tone of the painting is light and cheerful. The people in the painting look like they are enjoying themselves and having a good time. This effect is achieved through the use of bright colors and relaxed brushstrokes.

2. 2. “La Grenouillère”

“La Grenouillère” is another painting by Monet that depicts people spending their leisure time near La Grenouillère (as its name suggests). It was created in 1869 and is considered to be one of Monet’s early works that mark his transition from realist to impressionist style.

In this painting, Monet uses colors to create an illusion of heat – everything looks hazy and blurred because of the heat waves rising from the water surface. This effect is achieved through the use of light colors and loose brushstrokes. The overall tone of the painting is peaceful and calming.

3. The paintings by Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir is a French painter who was born in 1841 and died in 1919. He was one of the main representatives of impressionism. His work is characterized by its luminosity, elegance and beauty.

Renoir was interested in depicting real life and everyday scenes. In his paintings, you can see people spending their leisure time – dancing, walking, boating, etc. He wanted to show that even such mundane activities can be beautiful.

3. 1. “Dance at Bougival”

“Dance at Bougival” is a painting by Renoir that depicts a group of people – men and women – dancing at the Moulin de la Galette (a popular recreation spot in Paris at that time). It was created in 1883 and is considered to be one of Renoir’s masterpieces.

In this painting, Renoir uses colors to create an overall cheerful and festive atmosphere. The people in the painting look like they are enjoying themselves and having a good time. This effect is achieved through the use of bright colors and loose brushstrokes.

3. 2. “Luncheon of the Boating Party”

“Luncheon of the Boating Party” is another painting by Renoir that depicts people spending their leisure time – in this case, having lunch on a boat on the Seine river. It was created in 1881 and is considered to be one of the most famous and iconic paintings of impressionism.

In this painting, Renoir uses colors to create an overall tone of delight and relaxation. The people in the painting look like they are enjoying themselves and the food they are eating. This effect is achieved through the use of light colors and loose brushstrokes.

4. The paintings by Cezanne

Paul Cezanne is a French painter who was born in 1839 and died in 1906. He is considered to be one of the most important representatives of impressionism and post-impressionism. His work is characterized by its simplicity and clarity of form.

Cezanne was interested in depicting real life and everyday scenes. In his paintings, you can see people doing different activities – working, walking, talking, etc. He wanted to show that even such mundane activities can be interesting and beautiful.

4. 1. “The House with the Cracked Walls”

“The House with the Cracked Walls” is a painting by Cezanne that depicts a scene from everyday life – people walking in front of a house with cracked walls. It was created in 1893 and is considered to be one of Cezanne’s early works that mark his transition from impressionism to post-impressionism style.

In this painting, Cezanne uses colors to create an overall tone of calmness and relaxation. The people in the painting look like they are going about their business without any hurry or stress. This effect is achieved through the use of light colors and loose brushstrokes.
4.2. “The Card Players”

“The Card Players” is another painting by Cezanne that depicts people playing cards.
In this painting, Cezanne uses colors to create an overall tone of relaxation and calm. The people in the painting look like they are concentrated on the game and are not bothered by anything else. This effect is achieved through the use of muted colors and tight brushstrokes.

5. Conclusion

In the works of Monet, Renoir and Cezanne, the artists depicted leisure time, as a result of the industrial revolution and its effect on the society of a middle class. These paintings are characterized by their use of light colors and loose/tight brushstrokes. They create an overall tone of relaxation and calm/cheerfulness.

FAQ

Monet, Renoir, and Cezanne were all French painters who were key figures in the development of impressionism and post-impressionism.

Some of their most famous paintings include Monet's "Water Lilies" series, Renoir's "Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette", and Cezanne's "The Card Players".

They contributed to the development of these styles by painting everyday scenes and landscapes in a new way that emphasized light and color over realistic detail.

Monet's style is characterized by its softness and delicate brushwork, while Renoir's is known for its vibrant colors and lively subjects. Cezanne's style is distinguished by its geometric forms and use of bolder colors.

These artists are still considered important today because they paved the way for modern art movements like cubism and fauvism, and their work continues to inspire artists around the world.