The Different Parts of the Brain and Their Functions

1. The Constituents of the Brain

The brain is composed of three main parts, the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Each part is further divided into five divisions: the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon.

The forebrain includes the telencephalon and diencephalon. The telencephalon is made up of the cerebrum, which is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as memory and decision making. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus acts as a relay for incoming sensory information from the body to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus regulates various homeostatic functions such as body temperature, hunger, and thirst.

The midbrain includes the mesencephalon. The mesencephalon contains the optic chiasm, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and periaqueductal gray matter. The optic chiasm allows for visual information to be sent from the eyes to the brain. The substantia nigra is responsible for producing dopamine, which is important for motor control. The red nucleus is involved in balance and coordination. The periaqueductal gray matter is important for controlling pain signals from the body.

The hindbrain includes the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon contains the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinated movement and balance. The myelencephalon contains the medulla oblongata, which controls involuntary functions such as breathing and heart rate.

2. The Functions of the Brain

The brain has many functions including sensory processing, motor control, language, emotions, memory, and executive function.

Sensory processing refers to the ability to interpret incoming information from the senses such as sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. This information is then relayed to the appropriate area of the brain for further processing.

Motor control refers to the ability to coordinate movement of the muscles in order to produce purposeful actions. This involves both voluntary movements such as walking and writing, as well as involuntary movements such as blinking and breathing.

Language refers to the ability to communicate using symbols such as spoken words or written words. This includes both receptive language skills (understanding spoken or written language) and expressive language skills (producing spoken or written language).

Emotions refer to feelings that arise in response to certain stimuli. They can be positive (e.g., happiness) or negative (e.g., sadness). Emotions are important for regulating our behavior in social situations.

Memory refers to our ability to store and recall information from past experiences. There are three types of memory: working memory (short-term), declarative memory (long-term), and procedural memory (long-term).

Executive function refers to a set of cognitive abilities that are necessary for goal-directed behavior. These abilities include planning, decision making, flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory. Executive function deficits can lead to problems with academic performance, social skills, and everyday activities such as getting dressed or brushing teeth.

3. The Area of Regulation for the Brain

The brain is regulated by the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for coordinating the body’s response to internal and external stimuli. The brain is protected by the skull, which encloses and supports it. The dura mater, a tough membrane that covers the brain, protects it from injuries. The blood-brain barrier, a barrier that separates the blood from the brain, protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood.
The brain is a complex organ that is responsible for many of our thoughts, emotions, and actions. It is important to understand the different parts of the brain and how they work together in order to provide us with a full range of functions.


The main constituents of the brain are neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels.

Neurons work together to allow us to think, feel and experience the world around us by sending electrical signals to each other. Glial cells support and protect the neurons, and blood vessels provide nutrients and oxygen to the brain.

When something goes wrong with one or more of these constituents, it can lead to conditions like Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.