The Dell Model: A Guide to Constructing Well-Structured Stories

1. Introduction: what is the Dell model?

The Dell model is a model of speaking which was proposed by the linguist Dell Hymes. The model emphasizes the importance of well-structured stories that address the mechanism within a story. The model is designed to help speakers construct their stories in a way that is both efficient and understandable.

2. Key components of the Dell model

There are several key components of the Dell model which include:

2. 1 The end-act sequence
2.2 The key
2.3 Instrumentalities
2.4 Norms

2.5 Genres

3. The end-act sequence

The end-act sequence is a series of events that occur in a particular order. This sequence includes:

3. 1 The incident: something happens that triggers the need for communication.

3.2 The decision: the speaker decides what to do in response to the incident.

3. 3 The message: the speaker produces a message in response to the incident.

3.4 The feedback: the listener responds to the message.

3. 5 The reaction: the speaker reacts to the feedback.

3.6 The resolution: the situation is resolved and communication ends.

4. The key

The key is a set of rules that govern how a story should be told. These rules include:

4. 1 Segmenting the story into manageable parts

4.2 Beginning with an orientation

4. 3 Presenting events in chronological order

4.4 Using transitions to signal changes in time, place, or topic

4. 5 Ending with a coda

4.6 Using language that is appropriate for the audience and context

5. Instrumentalities

Instrumentalities are tools that help speakers organize their thoughts and ideas. These instrumentals include: mind-mapping, brainstorming, freewriting, and outlines. 6 Norms norms are guidelines for how stories should be told in specific contexts and for specific audiences. There are two types of norms: social norms and genre norms.Social norms include things like politeness, turn-taking, and eye contact. Genre norms are specific to certain types of stories, such as fairy tales, jokes, or news stories. 7 Genres A genre is a type of story that has its own set of conventions. These conventions include things like plot structure, character development, and language use. Some examples of genres include fairy tales, jokes, love stories, mystery stories, and horror stories. 8 Conclusion In conclusion, the Dell model is a speaking model that emphasizes the importance of well-structured stories.The model is designed to help speakers construct their stories in a way that is both efficient and understandable.The Dell model can be used by anyone who wants to improve their speaking skills.


The Speaking Model is a way of thinking about communication that emphasizes the importance of understanding how communication works in order to be an effective communicator.

The benefits of using the Speaking Model include being able to understand the various elements of communication and how they work together, as well as being able to identify common problems with communication and ways to overcome them.

Turn Constructional Units can be used to improve communication by helping people to understand how conversation works and by providing a framework for constructing turns in conversation.

Some common problems with communication include misunderstanding, miscommunication, and lack of clarity. These problems can be overcome by using active listening skills, asking clarifying questions, and repeating back what you have heard.

Body language is an important part of communication because it can provide nonverbal cues that help people to understand what is being said.

Verbal and nonverbal communication are both important aspects of effective communication. Nonverbal cues such as body language can help to reinforce or clarify the meaning of what is being said verbally.