The Construction Laws: Effects of Materials on Safety and Protection
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fire safety, steel, truss, frame, steel bolt, steel truss, steel frame, steel girders, steel gypsum sheathing, galvanized, water leakage, health hazard, corrosion and pre-stressed concrete of a building.
2. Fire safety
Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontrolled fire, and those that are used to limit the development and effects of a fire after it starts.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, often with other elements in small percentages that act as hardening agents such as manganese or silicon. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten. Steel’s strength and hardness comes from the carbon content which creates a network of strong cross-linked carbon atoms within the microstructure.
A truss is an assembly of beams or other elements that creates a rigid structure. In engineering, a truss is a structure that “consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves like a single object”. A truss consists of typically straight elements connected at joints referred to as nodes. This results in a structure composed of only straight members which fit together precisely at the joints to form triangular units. The rigidity of a truss arises from both the length of its components and because it forms triangular units which have an inherent stability.
A frame is often made up of beams that support one another at their ends forming corners or joints known as nodes. A beam is a horizontal member meant to carry loads perpendicular (at right angles) to its longitudinal (lengthwise) axis that are transferred from one point to another along its length. The loads may be evenly distributed along the beam or concentrated at certain points (such as at supports). A frame may be assembled from beams by either welding or bolting them together at their nodes.
6. Steel bolt
A steelbolt is a type of fastener consisting of a head andthreaded shaft used to join two or more pieces of metalor other materials. The head is usually hexagonal or squarein shape and the shaft has a series of threads runningalong its length that become progressively wider towardsits end. The bolts are tightened by turning them witha wrench or socket until they reach the desired level oftension.
7. Steel truss
A steel truss isa structural element consistingoftwoabove railroadtracksconnectedbygirdersanddiagonalsattachedtotheends(verticalmembers)andonlyattheends(horizontalmembers).Topandbottomchords(thelargestmembersinthestructure)areusuallymadeofsteelI-beams;theintermediatemembersareusuallymadeofsteelanglesortubes;theend connectorsareusuallymadeofsteelplates;theboltscanbeofanymaterialbutareusuallygalvanizedsteel;andthecablescanbeofanymaterialbutareusuallygalvanizedsteelwiresortubes.
8. Steel frame
A steel frame is a type of building construction framed with steel members bolted or welded together. Steel columns, beams, trusses and girders are the most common elements of a steel frame. The steel frame is then typically enclosed with sheathing (such as plywood) and interior finishing materials.
9. Steel girders
Steel girders are commonly used in the construction of bridges and buildings to provide support for floors and roofs. They are typically made from rolled steel plates that have been welded or bolted together to form the desired shape. The girders are then usually enclosed with concrete or other materials to provide additional strength and stiffness.
10. Steel gypsum sheathing
Steel gypsum sheathing is a type of construction material used to provide fire resistance and support for wall and ceiling surfaces. It is typically made from sheets of steel that are coated with gypsum plaster on one side and have a paper backing on the other. The sheets are then fastened to the structure with nails or screws.
Galvanization is the process of applying a protective coating to steel or iron to prevent rusting. The most common method is hot-dip galvanization, in which the metal is dipped in a molten zinc bath. This process provides a durable, corrosion-resistant coating that will last for many years.
12. Water leakage
Water leakage can occur in any building, but is most common in those that are poorly maintained or have been damaged by weather or other events. Leaks can occur in pipes, fittings, fixtures, roofs, walls, windows, and doors. If left unrepaired, water leaks can cause serious damage to a building, including structural damage, mold growth, and health hazards.
13. Health hazard
Exposure to water leaking from pipes, fittings, fixtures, roofs, walls, windows, and doors can lead to a number of health hazards, including skin infections, respiratory illnesses, and gastrointestinal illnesses. In addition, water leaks can promote the growth of mold and mildew, which can cause allergic reactions or respiratory problems in some people.
Corrosion is the process by which metal deteriorates when exposed to air or water. This process can occur slowly over time, or it can happen rapidly due to environmental conditions or damage to the metal itself. Corrosion can cause structural problems and lead to health hazards if left unrepaired.
15. Pre-stressed concrete
Pre-stressed concrete is a type of concrete that has been reinforced with high-strength cables or wires that are tensioned prior to being used in construction. This type of concrete is often used in applications where high loads are expected, such as bridges or parking structures.
In conclusion, the construction laws relate to the effects of material used for construction and assurance of human safety and protection.