The Collapse of Communism

What is Communism?

Communism is a form of governing philosophy that was established by Karl Max, who was a German economist and was supported by Fredrich Engel. It is based on the ideas of private ownership, forced redistribution, and common good. The main goals of communism are to promote economic equality and to end exploitation.

History of Communism

The first Communist state was established in Russia in 1917 by Vladimir Lenin. He overthrew the Tsarist government in a revolution and then implemented communist policies. However, he was opposed by Leon Trotsky, another communist leader, who believed in world revolution. This led to a power struggle between the two men which resulted in Trotsky being removed from power and eventually assassinated.

Lenin then became the sole leader of the Soviet Union and he ruled it with an iron fist. He eliminated all political opponents and forced the people to live under a dictatorship. He also introduced strict censorship and introductory education to make sure that everyone learned about communism.

Although Lenin died in 1924, his policies were continued by Joseph Stalin. Stalin was even more brutal than Lenin and he killed millions of people during his reign. He also initiated a series of purges in which he had people executed or sent to prison camps if he suspected them of being against him.

Stalin’s policies led to a slowdown in the Soviet economy and this caused discontent among the people. In 1953, Stalin died and Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader of the Soviet Union. Khrushchev began de-Stalinization, which was a process of undoing Stalin’s policies. He also denounced Stalin’s brutality and released many political prisoners.

However, Khrushchev’s reforms were not enough to save the Soviet Union and in 1991, it collapsed. The main reason for its collapse was economic problems as well as the fact that many people were opposed to communism.
In 1989, Poland held its first free elections in over 40 years and this encouraged other Eastern European countries to do the same. Furthermore, John Paul II, the Pope at the time, played a significant role in the collapse of communism as he spoke out against it on numerous occasions.
The fall of communism also meant that the Cold War came to an end. This was a period of time where the Soviet Union and the United States were in competition with each other and there was a risk of nuclear war between them.
In conclusion, there are many reasons why communism collapsed. These include economic problems, opposition from within Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the role of leaders such as John Paul II.


The primary reasons for the collapse of communism were the economic failures of communist regimes, the popular dissatisfaction with communist rule, and the reformist policies of Mikhail Gorbachev.

Communist regimes in Eastern Europe crumbled because of a loss of support from both the people and the Soviet Union. Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika contributed to the weakening of communist rule by making it more difficult for communist regimes to maintain control.

It is debated whether or not Gorbachev's policies were to blame for the collapse of communism. Some argue that his reforms hastened the demise of communism, while others believe that different decisions by Gorbachev could have saved the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union could have been saved if different decisions were made, but it is impossible to know what would have happened if different choices were made.

Popular uprisings occurred across Eastern Europe in 1989 because people were no longer willing to tolerate communist rule. The uprisings marked the end of communism in Eastern Europe.

The impact of communism's collapse on the world stage was significant. The end of communism led to a realignment of global politics and increased competition between capitalist and socialist countries