Racism in the 21st Century: The Problem of Institutional Discrimination
It is no secret that racism is a global problem. Unfortunately, it is still relevant in the 21st century. Some people believe that racism is a thing of the past, but this is not true. Racism has taken on a new form – institutional discrimination.
Institutional discrimination is prejudice or racism that is built into the structures and policies of organizations, businesses, or government agencies. It can be intentional or unintentional, but the result is always the same – certain groups of people are treated unfairly because of their race, ethnicity, or national origin.
The effects of institutional discrimination can be seen in many areas of life, from education to employment to housing. This type of discrimination can have a devastating effect on an individual’s life and can even impact entire communities.
2. What is institutional discrimination?
Institutional discrimination is defined as “prejudice or racism that is built into the structures and policies of organizations, businesses, or government agencies” (Dictionary.com, 2018). It can be intentional or unintentional, but the result is always the same – certain groups of people are treated unfairly because of their race, ethnicity, national origin, or other factors.
There are two main types of institutional discrimination:
– Structural discrimination refers to the ways in which institutions are designed or structured in a way that favors one group over another. For example, a university may have an admissions policy that favors students from wealthy families. This type of discrimination can also occur in the workplace, where women may be paid less than men for doing the same job (the so-called “glass ceiling effect”).
– Personal discrimination refers to situations where an individual treats someone differently because of their race or ethnicity. For example, a landlord may refuse to rent an apartment to someone because they are African American. Personal discrimination can also occur in the form of harassment or hate speech.
3. The effects of institutional discrimination
The effects of institutional discrimination can be seen in many areas of life. One of the most obvious examples is in the area of education. Students who come from minority groups are more likely to attend schools that are underfunded and have lower test scores than majority schools (Hirschman & Torres, 2000). This disparity often leads to minority students receiving inferior educations and having fewer opportunities later in life.
Institutional discrimination can also be seen in the workplace. Studies have shown that women and minorities are less likely to be promoted than their white male counterparts (Kalev et al., 2006). They are also more likely to be paid less for doing the same job (Bielby & Bielby, 1988). This glass ceiling effect creates disparities in wages and limits opportunities for women and minorities.
Institutional discrimination can also be seen in housing markets. Minority groups are often discriminated against when trying to buy or rent homes (Yinger, 1995). This type of discrimination often results in minority communities being relegated to lower-quality housing stock and living in segregated neighborhoods. Segregation has been shown to have negative effects on health, educational attainment, and economic opportunity (Boyle et al., 2013).
4. Conclusion Racism is a global problem that is still relevant in the 21st century. It has taken on a