Peru: A Country of Geographical and Cultural Diversity

1. Introduction

Peru is a country located in the western part of South America. It is bordered by Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Chile. The official language of Peru is Spanish. The capital of Peru is Lima and the currency is the Peruvian sol.

2. Geography of Peru

Peru is divided into three main geographical regions: the coastal region, the mountain region, and the Amazon rainforest region.

The coastal region is home to Lima, the capital of Peru. This region is also where most of the country’s industry and agriculture is concentrated. The climate here is tropical, with hot and humid summers and mild winters.

The mountain region is located in the Andes mountains. This region is home to Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca city that is now one of Peru’s main tourist attractions. The climate here is much cooler than in the coastal region, with cold winters and cool summers.

The Amazon rainforest region covers about 60% of Peru’s territory. This region is sparsely populated and its climate is tropical.

3. The economy of Peru

Peru has a free market economy that is based on agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing. The country’s main exports are copper, gold, zinc, lead, coffee, cocoa beans, rice, potatoes, textiles, and fishmeal.

4. The social structure of Peru

Peru has a very hierarchical social structure. The upper class consists of people who have a lot of money and power. The middle class consists of people who have some money and power. And the lower class consists of people who have very little money or power.

5. The political situation in Peru

The President of Peru is Ollanta Humala. He was elected in 2011 and his term will end in 2016. The Prime Minister of Peru is Juan Jimenez.

6. Conclusion

Traveling to Peru can be a very rewarding experience. There is so much to see and do in this beautiful country. From visiting ancient Inca cities to exploring the Amazon rainforest, there is something for everyone in Peru.


Peru is a lower-middle income country with a population of approximately 32 million. The economy is based largely on agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing. Social problems include high levels of poverty and inequality, as well as crime and terrorism. Political issues include corruption, instability, and the ongoing conflict with Shining Path rebels.

Peru's geography includes a long coastline on the Pacific Ocean, the Andes mountains, and Amazon rainforest. This diverse geography has shaped the country's economy, with coastal areas focused on fishing and trade, while mountain regions are home to mines and agricultural land. The Amazon region is largely undeveloped but contains important natural resources.

Key challenges facing Peru include reducing poverty and inequality, improving public safety, combating corruption, and resolving the conflict with Shining Path rebels. The government has implemented various programs to address these issues, including economic reforms and social welfare programs.

The future outlook for Peru is positive overall, with continued economic growth expected despite some challenges such as high levels of poverty and inequality