Maternal Mortality in Indonesia: A Preventable Tragedy

1. Introduction

Maternal death is a tragedy that can be prevented. In Indonesia, the maternal mortality rate is still relatively high, at 221 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015. The majority of maternal deaths (75%) are due to direct obstetric complications, which include five major medical causes: hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infection, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion.

2. The Major Medical Causes of Maternal Deaths

Hemorrhage is the leading cause of direct obstetric death, accounting for 27% of all maternal deaths. It can be caused by uterine rupture, placental abruption, or postpartum hemorrhage. Hypertensive disorders are the second leading cause of direct obstetric death, accounting for 18% of all maternal deaths. They include preeclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational hypertension. Infection is the third leading cause of direct obstetric death, accounting for 16% of all maternal deaths. It can be caused by sepsis, pneumonia, or meningitis. Obstructed labor is the fourth leading cause of direct obstetric death, accounting for 11% of all maternal deaths. This occurs when the baby is too large to pass through the mother’s pelvis or when the cervix is not fully dilated. Unsafe abortion is the fifth leading cause of direct obstetric death, accounting for 9% of all maternal deaths.

3. Ways to Reduce Maternal Deaths

There are several ways to reduce maternal mortality. One way is to improve access to quality care during pregnancy and childbirth. This includes providing skilled birth attendants (such as midwives and paramedics) and equipping them with the necessary supplies and equipment. Another way to reduce maternal mortality is to strengthen community health worker programs so that women can receive timely and appropriate care during pregnancy and childbirth.

4. Conclusion

Maternal mortality is a preventable tragedy. By improving access to quality care during pregnancy and childbirth and strengthening community health worker programs, we can reduce the number of maternal deaths in Indonesia.

FAQ

The major medical causes of maternal death are hemorrhage, sepsis, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and obstructed labor.

These deaths can be prevented through timely and effective interventions, including skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, and access to safe abortion services.

Obstetric care plays a vital role in reducing maternal mortality by providing essential services and interventions that can prevent or treat life-threatening complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

Skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care are highly effective in reducing maternal mortality when they are available and accessible to women in need.

Other factors that contribute to high rates of maternal mortality include poverty, lack of education, poor nutrition, gender inequality, and harmful traditional practices such as child marriage and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). These factors can be addressed through policies and programs that promote gender equality, empower women and girls, improve access to education and health care services, and address harmful traditional practices.